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== References ==
 
== References ==
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<biblio>
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#Barua Barua R.S., Ambrose J.A., Eales-Reynolds L.J., et al. “Dysfunctional endothelial nitric oxide biosynthesis in healthy smokers with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation.” Circulation 2001; 104:1905.
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#Barter Barter P.J., Caulfield M., Eriksson M., et al. “Effects of torcetrapib in patients at high risk for coronary events.” N Engl J Med 2007; 357:2109.
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#Bazzano Bazzano L.A., He J., Muntner P., et al. “Relationship between cigarette smoking and novel risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the United States.” Ann Intern Med 2003; 138:891.
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#Bennet Bennet A., Di Angelantonio E., Erqou S., et al. “Lipoprotein(a) levels and risk of future coronary heart disease: large-scale prospective data.” Arch Intern Med 2008; 168:598.
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#Turnbull Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration, Turnbull F., Neal B., et al. “Effects of different regimens to lower blood pressure on major cardiovascular events in older and younger adults: meta-analysis of randomised trials.” BMJ 2008; 336:1121.
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#Burke Burke A.P., Farb A., Malcom G.T., Liang Y., Smialek J.E., Virmani R. "Plaque rupture and sudden death related to exertion in men with coronary artery disease." JAMA. 1999;281(10):921.
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#Camm Camm A.J., Füscher T.F., Serruys P.W., eds. (2010). The ESC Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine Online Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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#Celermajer Celermajer D.S., Sorensen K.E., Georgakopoulos D., et al. “Cigarette smoking is associated with dose-related and potentially reversible impairment of endothelium-dependent dilation in healthy young adults.” Circulation 1993; 88:2149.
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#Dauchet Dauchet L., Amouyel P., Dallongeville J. “Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.” Neurology 2005; 65:1193.
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#DeBacker De Backer G., Ambrosioni E., Borch-Johnsen K., et al. “European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: third joint task force of European and other societies on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (constituted by representatives of eight societies and by invited experts).” Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2003; 10:S1.
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#Downs Downs J.R., Clearfield M., Weis S., Whitney E., Shapiro D.R., Beere P.A., Langendorfer A., Stein EA, Kruyer W, Gotto AM Jr. "Primary prevention of acute coronary events with lovastatin in men and women with average cholesterol levels: results of AFCAPS/TexCAPS. Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study." JAMA. 1998;279(20):1615.
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#Eckel Eckel R.H., York D.A., Rössner S., et al. “Prevention Conference VII: Obesity, a worldwide epidemic related to heart disease and stroke: executive summary.” Circulation 2004; 110:2968.
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#Erqou Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, Erqou S., Kaptoge S., et al. “Lipoprotein(a) concentration and the risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and nonvascular mortality.” JAMA 2009; 302:412.
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#Fuchs Fuchs C.S., Stampfer M.J., Colditz G.A., et al. “Alcohol consumption and mortality among women.” N Engl J Med 1995; 332:1245.
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#Grady Grady D., Herrington D., Bittner V., et al. “Cardiovascular disease outcomes during 6.8 years of hormone therapy: Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study follow-up (HERS II).” JAMA 2002; 288:49.
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#Harker Harker L.A., Ross R., Slichter S.J., Scott C.R. “Homocystine-induced arteriosclerosis. The role of endothelial cell injury and platelet response in its genesis.” J Clin Invest 1976; 58:731.
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#Haffner Haffner S.M., Lehto S., Rönnemaa T., et al. “Mortality from coronary heart disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes and in nondiabetic subjects with and without prior myocardial infarction.” N Engl J Med 1998; 339:229.
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#Howard Howard G., Wagenknecht L.E., Burke G.L., Diez-Roux A., Evans G.W., McGovern P., Nieto F.J., Tell G.S. "Cigarette smoking and progression of atherosclerosis: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study." JAMA. 1998;279(2):119.
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#Jackson Jackson R., Scragg R., Beaglehole R. “Alcohol consumption and risk of coronary heart disease.” BMJ 1991; 303:211.
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#Jee Jee S.H., Suh I., Kim I.S., Appel L.J. "Smoking and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in men with low levels of serum cholesterol: the Korea Medical Insurance Corporation Study." JAMA. 1999;282(22):2149.
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#Klein Klein S., Burke L.E., Bray G.A., et al. “Clinical implications of obesity with specific focus on cardiovascular disease: a statement for professionals from the American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism: endorsed by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.” Circulation 2004; 110:2952.
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#Knoops Knoops K.T., de Groot L.C., Kromhout D., et al. “Mediterranean diet, lifestyle factors, and 10-year mortality in elderly European men and women: the HALE project.” JAMA 2004; 292:1433.
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#VanZuiden Kwaliteitsinstituut voor de gezondheidszorg CBO and Nederlandse Huisartsen Genootschap. (2006). Multidisciplinaire richtlijn cardiovasculair risicomanagement 2006. Alphen aan den Rijn: Van Zuiden Communications.
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#Lilly Lilly L.S. (ed.). (2007). Pathophysiology of Heart Disease. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, p. 118–140.
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#NCEP Lilly L.S. (ed.). (2007). Pathophysiology of Heart Disease. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, p. 118–140.
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#Nordmann Nordmann A.J., Suter-Zimmermann K., Bucher H.C., et al. “Meta-analysis comparing Mediterranean to low-fat diets for modification of cardiovascular risk factors.” Am J Med 2011; 124:841.
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#Mancia Mancia G., Messerli F., Bakris G., et al. “Blood pressure control and improved cardiovascular outcomes in the International Verapamil SR-Trandolapril Study.” Hypertension 2007; 50:299.
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#McCully McCully K.S. “Vascular pathology of homocysteinemia: implications for the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis.” Am J Pathol 1969; 56:111.
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#Mendis Mendis S., Puska P., Norrving B. (eds.). (2011). Global Atlas on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Control. Geneva: World Health Organization.
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#Mukamal Mukamal K.J., Chung H., Jenny N.S., et al. “Alcohol consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study.” J Am Geriatr Soc 2006; 54:30.
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#Newby Newby D.E., Wright R.A., Labinjoh C., et al. “Endothelial dysfunction, impaired endogenous fibrinolysis, and cigarette smoking: a mechanism for arterial thrombosis and myocardial infarction.” Circulation 1999; 99:1411.
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#O'Keefe O'Keefe J.H., Bybee K.A., Lavie C.J. “Alcohol and cardiovascular health: the razor-sharp double-edged sword.” J Am Coll Cardiol 2007; 50:1009.
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#Paffenbarger Paffenbarger R.S. Jr, Hyde R.T., Wing A.L., et al. “The association of changes in physical-activity level and other lifestyle characteristics with mortality among men.” N Engl J Med 1993; 328:538.
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#Pasceri Pasceri V., Cheng J.S., Willerson J.T., et al. “Modulation of C-reactive protein-mediated monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 induction in human endothelial cells by anti-atherosclerosis drugs.” Circulation 2001; 103:2531.
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#Pasceri2 Pasceri V., Willerson J.T., Yeh E.T. “Direct proinflammatory effect of C-reactive protein on human endothelial cells.” Circulation 2000; 102:2165.
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#Pearson Pearson T.A., Mensah G.A., Alexander R.W., et al. “Markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease: application to clinical and public health practice: A statement for healthcare professionals from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Heart Association.” Circulation 2003; 107:499.
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#Poirier Poirier P., Giles T.D., Bray G.A., et al. “Obesity and cardiovascular disease: pathophysiology, evaluation, and effect of weight loss: an update of the 1997 American Heart Association Scientific Statement on Obesity and Heart Disease from the Obesity Committee of the Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism.” Circulation 2006; 113:898.
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#Powell Powell K.E., Thompson P.D., Caspersen C.J., Kendrick J.S. “Physical activity and the incidence of coronary heart disease.” Annu Rev Public Health 1987; 8:253.
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#Reaven Reaven G., Tsao P.S. “Insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia: the key player between cigarette smoking and cardiovascular disease?” J Am Coll Cardiol 2003; 41:1044.
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#Ridker Ridker P.M., Cushman M., Stampfer M.J., et al. “Inflammation, aspirin, and the risk of cardiovascular disease in apparently healthy men.” N Engl J Med 1997; 336:973.
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#Ridker2 Ridker P.M., Glynn R.J., Hennekens C.H. “C-reactive protein adds to the predictive value of total and HDL cholesterol in determining risk of first myocardial infarction.” Circulation 1998; 97:2007.
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#Rimm Rimm E.B., Ascherio A., Giovannucci E., et al. “Vegetable, fruit, and cereal fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men.” JAMA 1996; 275:447.
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#Rolland Rolland P.H., Friggi A., Barlatier A., et al. “Hyperhomocysteinemia-induced vascular damage in the minipig. Captopril-hydrochlorothiazide combination prevents elastic alterations.” Circulation 1995; 91:1161.
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#Ronksley Ronksley P.E., Brien S.E., Turner B.J., et al. “Association of alcohol consumption with selected cardiovascular disease outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.” BMJ 2011; 342:d671.
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#Rose Rose G., Hamilton P.J., Colwell L., Shipley M.J. “A randomised controlled trial of anti-smoking advice: 10-year results.” J Epidemiol Community Health 1982; 36:102.
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#Rossouw Rossouw J.E., Anderson G.L., Prentice R.L., et al. “Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results From the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial.” JAMA 2002; 288:321.
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#Rubin Rubin R., Strayer D.S., Rubin E. (ed.). (2008). Rubin's Pathology: Clinicopathologic Foundations of Medicine Fifth Edition. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, p387-408
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#Sacks Sacks F.M., Pfeffer M.A., Moye L.A., Rouleau J.L., Rutherford J.D., Cole T.G., Brown L., Warnica J.W., Arnold J.M., Wun C.C., Davis B.R., Braunwald E. "The effect of pravastatin on coronary events after myocardial infarction in patients with average cholesterol levels. Cholesterol and Recurrent Events Trial investigators." N Engl J Med. 1996;335(14):1001.
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#Shepherd Shepherd J., Cobbe S.M., Ford I., Isles C.G., Lorimer A.R., MacFarlane P.W., McKillop J.H., Packard C.J. "Prevention of coronary heart disease with pravastatin in men with hypercholesterolemia. West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study Group." N Engl J Med. 1995;333(20):1301.
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#Stefanadis Stefanadis C., Tsiamis E., Vlachopoulos C., et al. “Unfavorable effect of smoking on the elastic properties of the human aorta.” Circulation 1997; 95:31.
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#Tall Tall, A. R. "CETP inhibitors to increase HDL cholesterol levels." N.Engl.J.Med. 356.13 (2007): 1364-66.
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</biblio>
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