Heart Failure Table 4

From Textbook of Cardiology
Jump to: navigation, search
Table 4. Size of treatment effect
Class I

Benefit >>> Risk

Class IIa

Benefit >> Risk

Additional studies with focused objectives needed

Class IIb

Benefit ≥ Risk

Additional studies with broad objectives needed; additional registry data would be helpful

Class III

Benefit ≥ Risk

No additional studies needed

Procedure/treatment should be performed/administered It is reasonable to perform/administer treatment Procedure/treatment may be considered Procedure/treatment should not be performed/administered since it is not helpful and may be harmful
Level A

Multiple (3-5) population risk strata evaluated

  • Recommendation that procedure or treatment is useful/effective
  • Sufficient evidence from multiple randomized trials or non-randomized trials
  • Recommendation in favor of treatment or procedure being useful/effective
  • Some conflicting evidence from multiple randomized trials or meta-analyses
  • Recommendation’s usefulness/efficacy less well established
  • Greater conflicting evidence from multiple randomized trials or meta-analyses
  • Recommendation that procedure or treatment not useful/effective and may be harmful
  • Sufficient evidence from multiple randomized trials or meta-analyses
Level B

Limited (2-3) population risk strata evaluated

  • Recommendation that procedure or treatment is useful/effective
  • Limited evidence from single randomized trial or non-randomized studies
  • Recommendation in favor of treatment or procedure being useful/effective
  • Some conflicting evidence from single randomized trial or non-randomized studies
  • Recommendation’s usefulness/efficacy less well established
  • Greater conflicting evidence from single randomized trial or non-randomized studies
  • Recommendation that procedure or treatment not useful/effective and may be harmful
  • Limited evidence from single randomized trial or non-randomized studies
Level C

Very limited (1-2) population risk strata evaluated

  • Recommendation that procedure or treatment is useful/effective
  • Only experts opinion, case studies, or standard-of-care
  • Recommendation in favor of treatment or procedure being useful/effective
  • Only diverging expert opinion case studies, or standard-of-care
  • Recommendation’s usefulness/efficacy less well established
  • Only diverging expert opinion case studies, or standard-of-care
  • Recommendation that procedure or treatment not useful/effective and may be harmful
  • Only expert opinion case studies, or standard-of-care