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**Repaired CHD with residual defects at the site or adjacent to the site of a prosthetic patch or prosthetic device (which inhibit endothelialization)
 
**Repaired CHD with residual defects at the site or adjacent to the site of a prosthetic patch or prosthetic device (which inhibit endothelialization)
 
*Cardiac transplantation recipients who develop cardiac valvulopathy
 
*Cardiac transplantation recipients who develop cardiac valvulopathy
 
+
*Dental procedures require prophylaxis:
Dental procedures require prophylaxis:
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**Manipulation of gingival tissue, or the periapical region of teeth or perforation of oral mucosa
 
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*Respiratory tract procedures require prophylaxis:
*Manipulation of gingival tissue, or the periapical region of teeth or perforation of oral mucosa
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**Incision or biopsy of the respiratory mucosa, or procedures involving treatment of abscess of empyema
 
  −
Respiratory tract procedures require prophylaxis:
  −
 
  −
*Incision or biopsy of the respiratory mucosa, or procedures involving treatment of abscess of empyema
      
Antibiotic prophylaxis is also recommended for any procedures on infected skin/skin structures or musculoskeletal tissue in high risk patients.<cite>xix</cite>
 
Antibiotic prophylaxis is also recommended for any procedures on infected skin/skin structures or musculoskeletal tissue in high risk patients.<cite>xix</cite>
Line 174: Line 170:  
==References==
 
==References==
 
<biblio>
 
<biblio>
 +
#i "Infective Endocarditis — NEJM." 2013. 12 Sep. 2013 <http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMcp1206782>
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#ii Cabell CH, Fowler VG, Jr, Engemann JJ, et al. Endocarditis in the elderly: Incidence, surgery, and survival in 16,921 patients over 12 years. Circulation.2002;106(19):547.
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#iii  Miró, José M, Ana del Rı́o, and Carlos A Mestres. "Infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers and HIV-1 infected patients." Infectious disease clinics of North America 16.2 (2002): 273-295.
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#iv Ipek, Esra Gucuk et al. "Infections of implantable cardiac rhythm devices: predisposing factors and outcome." Acta cardiologica 67.3 (2012): 303.
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#v Pappelbaum, Karin I et al. "Ultra-Large von Willebrand Factor Fibers Mediate Luminal Staphylococcus Aureus Adhesion to an Intact Endothelial Cell Layer under Shear Stress." Circulation (2013).
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#vi Rasmussen, RV. "Prevalence of infective endocarditis in patients with Staphylococcus ..." 2011. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21685200>
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#vii Duval, Xavier et al. "Temporal Trends in Infective Endocarditis in the Context of Prophylaxis Guideline ModificationsThree Successive Population-Based Surveys." Journal of the American College of Cardiology 59.22 (2012): 1968-1976.
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#viii Miro, JM. "Staphylococcus aureus native valve infective endocarditis: report of ..." 2005. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16028160>
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#ix Rasmussen, Rasmus V et al. "Prevalence of infective endocarditis in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia: the value of screening with echocardiography." European Journal of Echocardiography 12.6 (2011): 414-420.
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#x Lalani, T et al. "Prosthetic valve endocarditis due to coagulase-negative staphylococci: findings from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis Merged Database." European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 25.6 (2006): 365-368.
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#xi McDonald, Jay R. "Acute infective endocarditis." Infectious disease clinics of North America 23.3 (2009): 643-664.
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#xii Das, MD, M et al. "Infective endocarditis caused by HACEK microorganisms." Annual review of medicine 48.1 (1997): 25-33.
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#xiii Baddour, Larry M et al. "Infective Endocarditis Diagnosis, Antimicrobial Therapy, and Management of Complications: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and the Councils on Clinical Cardiology, Stroke, and Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, American Heart Association: Endorsed by the Infectious Diseases Society of America." Circulation 111.23 (2005): e394-e434.
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#xiv Li, Jennifer S et al. "Proposed modifications to the Duke criteria for the diagnosis of infective endocarditis." Clinical infectious diseases 30.4 (2000): 633-638.
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#xv Evangelista, A, and MT Gonzalez-Alujas. "Echocardiography in infective endocarditis." Heart 90.6 (2004): 614-617.
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#xvi Mügge, A. "PubMed." 1989. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2768712>
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#xvii "Guidelines on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infective ..." 2012. 20 Nov. 2013 <http://eurheartj.oxfordjournals.org/content/30/19/2369/T17.expansion.html>
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#xviii Wilson, Walter et al. "Prevention of Infective Endocarditis Guidelines From the American Heart Association: A Guideline From the American Heart Association Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease Committee, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group." Circulation 116.15 (2007): 1736-1754.
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#xix Wilson, Walter et al. "Prevention of Infective Endocarditis Guidelines From the American Heart Association: A Guideline From the American Heart Association Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease Committee, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and the Council on Clinical Cardiology, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group." Circulation 116.15 (2007): 1736-1754.
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#xx "UniSTS." 2006. 20 Nov. 2013 <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/sts/sts.cgi?uid=85362>
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#xxi Hollanders, G et al. "A six years review on 53 cases of infective endocarditis: clinical, microbiological and therapeutical features." Acta cardiologica 43.2 (1987): 121-132.
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#xxii Baddour, Larry M et al. "Infective Endocarditis Diagnosis, Antimicrobial Therapy, and Management of Complications: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease, Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, and the Councils on Clinical Cardiology, Stroke, and Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, American Heart Association: Endorsed by the Infectious Diseases Society of America." Circulation 111.23 (2005): e394-e434.
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#xxiii Kiefer, T, and T Kiefer. "Article - JAMA Network." 2011. <https://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=1104665&link=xref>
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#xxiv Meine, Trip J et al. "Cardiac conduction abnormalities in endocarditis defined by the Duke criteria." American heart journal 142.2 (2001): 280-285.
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#xxv Homma, Shunichi, and Cairistine Grahame-Clarke. "Toward reducing embolic complications from endocarditis." Journal of the American College of Cardiology 42.5 (2003): 781-783.
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#xxvi Hubert, Sandrine et al. "Prediction of Symptomatic Embolism in Infective EndocarditisConstruction and Validation of a Risk Calculator in a Multicenter Cohort." Journal of the American College of Cardiology 62.15 (2013): 1384-1392.
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#xxvii Thuny, Franck et al. "Risk of Embolism and Death in Infective Endocarditis: Prognostic Value of Echocardiography A Prospective Multicenter Study." Circulation 112.1 (2005): 69-75.
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#xxviii Snygg-Martin, U. "Cerebrovascular complications in patients with left-sided infective ..." 2008. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18491965>
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#xxix Kourany, WM. "Influence of diabetes mellitus on the clinical manifestations and ..." 2006. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16857604>
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#xxx Nakagawa, Tom et al. "Clinical features of infective endocarditis: Comparison between the 1990s and 2000s." Journal of cardiology (2013).
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#xxxi Bikdeli, Behnood et al. "Trends in Hospitalization Rates and Outcomes of Endocarditis among Medicare Beneficiaries." Journal of the American College of Cardiology (2013).
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#xxxii Wang, Andrew et al. "The use and effect of surgical therapy for prosthetic valve infective endocarditis: a propensity analysis of a multicenter, international cohort." American heart journal 150.5 (2005): 1086-1091.
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#xxxiii Lalani, Tahaniyat et al. "Analysis of the impact of early surgery on in-hospital mortality of native valve endocarditis use of propensity score and instrumental variable methods to adjust for treatment-selection bias." Circulation 121.8 (2010): 1005-1013.
 
</biblio>
 
</biblio>
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